In science, we make this type of inference all the time; for instance, using phenomena to infer laws of nature and then using those laws of nature to make further predictions.
A second, related problem is that, if one accepts the Caricature Argument, then one must accept the entailed modality. We cannot make use of a more convincing argument, than to prove that the actions ascribed to any person are directly contrary to the course of nature, and that no human motives, in such circumstances, could ever induce him to such a conduct.
Two objects so closely linked, and that began to exist together, should also cease to exist together. A river must flow, before its stream can be interrupted. And as the uniform experience amounts to a proof, then there is here a direct and full proof, from the nature of the fact, against the existence of any miracle; nor can such a proof be destroyed, or the miracle rendered credible, but by an opposite proof, which is superior….
We discover laws of nature on the basis of our experience of constant conjunctions of events or objects.
Hume adds a further set of objections relating to the morally pernicious aspects of the doctrine of a future state of rewards and punishments. Craig, William Lane,Reasonable Faith, 3rd ed. But it is beyond contesting that some such argument, widely attributed to Hume, has been tremendously influential.
The result of giving weight to these various considerations is that the credulity of actual historical miracle claims is radically diminished.
He then gives four considerations as to why this is the case, three of which are relatively straightforward. This deity is stripped of the traits that make the design analogy weak, and is further stripped of human passions as, for Philo, it would be absurd to think that the deity has human emotions, especially a need to be praised.
Further, Hume says, we certainly have no conception of cause and effect a priori, and are therefore in no position to make a priori conclusions about the persistence conditions of a mental substance, or to infer that this substance grounds our thoughts.
There is too much evil for a good deity, too much good for an evil deity, and too much regularity for multiple deities. Themes, Arguments, and Ideas The Uncertainty of Causation Hume observes that while we may perceive two events that seem to occur in conjunction, there is no way for us to know the nature of their connection.
For limited but still useful historical discussions of Hume and his influence, see Leland Hume mentions four categories of consideration about the reliability of testimony.
Then he is malevolent or at least less than perfectly good. Enthusiasm, on the other hand, comes from excessive adoration.
In the introduction to the Natural History, Hume posits that there are two types of inquiry to be made into religion: You forget, that this superlative intelligence and benevolence are entirely imaginary, or, at least, without any foundation in reason; and that you have no ground to ascribe to him any qualities, but what you see he has actually exerted and displayed in his productions.
Wardlaw, Ralph,On Miracles, Edinburgh: When anyone tells me, that he saw a dead man restored to life, I immediately consider with myself, whether it be more probable, that this person should either deceive or be deceived, or that the fact, which he relates, should really have happened.
That was because living beings showed complexity and were exquisitely fitted to their places in a happy world. This view of the importance of the doctrine of future rewards and punishments was accepted by almost all the leading theologians at this time and is, of course, still widely accepted among religious thinkers today.
For example, with a watch, we know it has to be created by a watch-maker because we can observe it being made and compare it to the making of other similar watches or objects to deduce they have alike causes in their creation.
His very first work had the charge of atheism leveled against it, and this led to his being passed over for the Chair of Moral Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh.
The inference is only to a necessary being, and for Philo, it is at least as acceptable to posit the universe as necessary in this way rather than positing an extra entity above and beyond it. Instruct them to do good, to be rich in good works, to be generous and ready to share, storing up for themselves the treasure of a good foundation for the future, so that they may take hold of that which is life indeed.
If you reply in the negative, I conclude, that you have then no reason to ascribe justice, in our sense of it, to the gods. Second, Hume points out that this system would not be just regardless.
Philo, however, raises the old problem of Epicurus, that the existence of evil is incompatible with a morally perfect and omnipotent deity. First, one might try, the scholarly consensus notwithstanding, to dispute the facts asserted.Description and explanation of the major themes of David Hume (–).
This accessible literary criticism is perfect for anyone faced with David Hume (–) essays, papers, tests, exams, or for anyone who needs to create a David Hume (–) lesson plan. Because the field of arguments for miracles is so wide, a consideration of all of the criticisms that have been leveled against particular arguments for miracles would fill many volumes.
But four particular arguments raised by Hume are sufficiently well known to be of interest to philosophers. Johnson, David,Hume, Holism, and. The watchmaker analogy or watchmaker argument is a teleological argument which states, by way of an analogy, that a design implies a ultimedescente.com analogy has played a prominent role in natural theology and the "argument from design," where it was used to support arguments for the existence of God and for the intelligent design of the universe, in both Christianity and Deism.
Hume’s analogical knowledge will play a key role as a presupposition in his arguments against miracles. Hume’s Argument on Miracles Having given a brief overview of Hume’s epistemology, we can turn to his discussion of miracles.
What are some arguments for deism V. atheism? What are the arguments against Deism? What is deism? Is Deism harmless? Theology: What is the difference between deism and theism?
What argument would an atheist make against deism or pandeism? David Hume’s various writings concerning problems of religion are among the most important and influential contributions on this topic.
In the Treatise Hume advanced another set of arguments against the doctrine of a future state. In this context he argues that any idea or belief in life in a future state is too faint and weak to have any.Download